Bioessays. 2021 Dec 6;e2100174. doi: 10.1002/bies.202100174. Online ahead of print.
RNA modifications have recently emerged as an important regulatory layer of gene expression. The most prevalent and reversible modification on messenger RNA (mRNA), N6-methyladenosine, regulates most steps of RNA metabolism and its dysregulation has been associated with numerous diseases. Other modifications such as 5-methylcytosine and N1-methyladenosine have also been detected on mRNA but their abundance is lower and still debated. Adenosine to inosine RNA editing is widespread on coding and non-coding RNA and can alter mRNA decoding as well as protect against autoimmune diseases. 2′-O-methylation of the ribose and pseudouridine are widespread on ribosomal and transfer RNA and contribute to proper RNA folding and stability. While the understanding of the individual role of RNA modifications has now reached an unprecedented stage, still little is known about their interplay in the control of gene expression. In this review we discuss the examples where such interplay has been observed and speculate that with the progress of mapping technologies more of those will rapidly accumulate.
Keywords: 2′-O-methylation; RNA modifications; epitranscriptomics; inosine; m5C; m6A; pseudouridine.
© 2021 The Authors. BioEssays published by Wiley Periodicals LLC.
- PMID: 34873719
- DOI: 10.1002/bies.202100174