Biochim Biophys Acta. 2015 Feb 26. pii: S0925-4439(15)00061-7. doi: 10.1016/j.bbadis.2015.02.010. [Epub ahead of print]
PPARβ/δ ameliorates fructose-induced insulin resistance in adipocytes by preventing Nrf2 activation.
We studied whether PPARβ/δ deficiency modifies the effects of high fructose intake (30% fructose in drinking water) on glucose tolerance and adipose tissue dysfunction, focusing on the CD36-dependent pathway that enhances adipose tissue inflammation and impairs insulin signaling. Fructose intake for 8weeks significantly increased body and liver weight, and hepatic triglyceride accumulation in PPARβ/δ-deficient mice but not in wild-type mice. Feeding PPARβ/δ-deficient mice with fructose exacerbated glucose intolerance and led to macrophage infiltration, inflammation enhanced mRNA and protein levels of CD36, and activation of the JNK pathway in white adipose tissue compared to those of water-fed PPARβ/δ-deficient mice. Cultured adipocytes exposed to fructose also exhibited increased CD36 protein levels and this increase was prevented by the PPARβ/δ activator GW501516. Interestingly, the levels of the nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a transcription factor reported to up-regulate Cd36 expression and to impair insulin signaling, were increased in fructose-exposed adipocytes whereas co-incubation with GW501516 abolished this increase. In agreement with Nrf2 playing a role in the fructose-induced CD36 protein level increases, the Nrf2 inhibitor trigonelline prevented the increase and the reduction in insulin-stimulated AKT phosphorylation caused by fructose in adipocytes. Protein levels of the well-known Nrf2 target gene NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (Nqo1) were increased in water-fed PPARβ/δ-null mice, suggesting that PPARβ/δ deficiency increases Nrf2 activity; and this increase was exacerbated in fructose-fed PPARβ/δ-deficient mice. These findings indicate that the combination of high fructose intake and PPARβ/δ deficiency increases CD36 protein levels via Nrf2, a process that promotes chronic inflammation and insulin resistance in adipose tissue. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Adipocyte; CD36; Fructose; JNK; Oxidized LDL; PPARβ/δ
- PMID: 25728706