HGG Adv. 2022 Mar 16;3(2):100100. doi: 10.1016/j.xhgg.2022.100100. eCollection 2022 Apr 14.
The origins of pharmacogenetics date back to the 1950s, when it was established that inter-individual differences in drug response are partially determined by genetic factors. Since then, pharmacogenetics has grown into its own field, motivated by the translation of identified gene-drug interactions into therapeutic applications. Despite numerous challenges ahead, our understanding of the human pharmacogenetic landscape has greatly improved thanks to the integration of tools originating from disciplines as diverse as biochemistry, molecular biology, statistics, and computer sciences. In this review, we discuss past, present, and future developments of pharmacogenetics methodology, focusing on three milestones: how early research established the genetic basis of drug responses, how technological progress made it possible to assess the full extent of pharmacological variants, and how multi-dimensional omics datasets can improve the identification, functional validation, and mechanistic understanding of the interplay between genes and drugs. We outline novel strategies to repurpose and integrate molecular and clinical data originating from biobanks to gain insights analogous to those obtained from randomized controlled trials. Emphasizing the importance of increased diversity, we envision future directions for the field that should pave the way to the clinical implementation of pharmacogenetics.
Keywords: biobanks; bioinformatics; causal inference; electronic health records; genome-wide association studies; multi-omics; pharmacogenetics; pharmacogenome; pharmacogenomics.