Nutrients. 2020 Nov 12;12(11):E3476. doi: 10.3390/nu12113476.
Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors as Molecular Links between Caloric Restriction and Circadian Rhythm
The circadian rhythm plays a chief role in the adaptation of all bodily processes to internal and environmental changes on the daily basis. Next to light/dark phases, feeding patterns constitute the most essential element entraining daily oscillations, and therefore, timely and appropriate restrictive diets have a great capacity to restore the circadian rhythm. One of the restrictive nutritional approaches, caloric restriction (CR) achieves stunning results in extending health span and life span via coordinated changes in multiple biological functions from the molecular, cellular, to the whole-body levels. The main molecular pathways affected by CR include mTOR, insulin signaling, AMPK, and sirtuins. Members of the family of nuclear receptors, the three peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), PPARα, PPARβ/δ, and PPARγ take part in the modulation of these pathways. In this non-systematic review, we describe the molecular interconnection between circadian rhythm, CR-associated pathways, and PPARs. Further, we identify a link between circadian rhythm and the outcomes of CR on the whole-body level including oxidative stress, inflammation, and aging. Since PPARs contribute to many changes triggered by CR, we discuss the potential involvement of PPARs in bridging CR and circadian rhythm.
Keywords: caloric restriction; circadian rhythm; metabolism; nuclear receptors.
- PMID: 33198317
- DOI: 10.3390/nu12113476