Recent CIG publications Archive

0

Nucleic Acids Res.: co-auth.: J-Y.Roignant

 2020 Jan 16. pii: gkaa002. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkaa002. [Epub ahead of print]

tRNA 2′-O-methylation by a duo of TRM7/FTSJ1 proteins modulates small RNA silencing in Drosophila.

Abstract

2′-O-Methylation (Nm) represents one of the most common RNA modifications. Nm affects RNA structure and function with crucial roles in various RNA-mediated processes ranging from RNA silencing, translation, self versus non-self recognition to viral defense mechanisms. Here, we identify two Nm methyltransferases (Nm-MTases) in Drosophila melanogaster (CG7009 and CG5220) as functional orthologs of yeast TRM7 and human FTSJ1. Genetic knockout studies together with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and RiboMethSeq mapping revealed that CG7009 is responsible for methylating the wobble position in tRNAPhe, tRNATrp and tRNALeu, while CG5220 methylates position C32 in the same tRNAs and also targets additional tRNAs. CG7009 or CG5220 mutant animals were viable and fertile but exhibited various phenotypes such as lifespan reduction, small RNA pathways dysfunction and increased sensitivity to RNA virus infections. Our results provide the first detailed characterization of two TRM7 family members in Drosophila and uncover a molecular link between enzymes catalyzing Nm at specific tRNAs and small RNA-induced gene silencing pathways.

PMID: 31943105
0

Bioinformatics.: co-auth.: group Fajas

 2020 Jan 10. pii: btz858. doi: 10.1093/bioinformatics/btz858. [Epub ahead of print]

PamgeneAnalyzeR: open and reproducible pipeline for kinase profiling.

Protein phosphorylation – catalyzed by protein kinases – is the most common post-translational modification. It increases the functional diversity of the proteome and influences various aspects of normal physiology and can be altered in disease states. High throughput profiling of kinases is becoming an essential experimental approach to investigate their activity and this can be achieved using technologies such as PamChip® arrays provided by PamGene for kinase activity measurement. Here we present “pamgeneAnalyzeR”, an R package developed as an alternative to the manual steps necessary to extract the data from PamChip® peptide microarrays images in a reproducible and robust manner. The extracted data can be directly used for downstream analysis.

AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION:

PamgeneAnalyzeR is implemented in R and can be obtained from https://github.com/amelbek/pamgeneAnalyzeR.

PMID: 31922550

 

0

Clin Investig Arterioscler.: co-auth.: W.Wahli

 2019 May – Jun;31(3):111-118. doi: 10.1016/j.arteri.2019.01.004. Epub 2019 Apr 13.

Pharmacological PPARβ/δ activation upregulates VLDLR in hepatocytes.

[Article in English, Spanish]

Abstract

The very low-density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) plays an important function in the control of serum triglycerides and in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In this study, we investigated the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)β/δ activation in hepatic VLDLR regulation. Treatment of mice fed a high-fat diet with the PPARβ/δ agonist GW501516 increased the hepatic expression of Vldlr. Similarly, exposure of human Huh-7 hepatocytes to GW501516 increased the expression of VLDLR and triglyceride accumulation, the latter being prevented by VLDLR knockdown. Finally, treatment with another PPARβ/δ agonist increased VLDLR levels in the liver of wild-type mice, but not PPARβ/δ-deficient mice, confirming the regulation of hepatic VLDLR by this nuclear receptor. Our results suggest that upregulation of hepatic VLDLR by PPARβ/δ agonists might contribute to the hypolipidemic effect of these drugs by increasing lipoprotein delivery to the liver. Overall, these findings provide new effects by which PPARβ/δ regulate VLDLR levels and may influence serum triglyceride levels and NAFLD development.

KEYWORDS:

EHGNA; NAFLD; PPAR; VLDLR

PMID: 30987865

 

0

PLoS One.: auth.: group Herr

 2020 Jan 6;15(1):e0224646. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0224646. eCollection 2020.

THAP11F80L cobalamin disorder-associated mutation reveals normal and pathogenic THAP11 functions in gene expression and cell proliferation.

Abstract

Twelve human THAP proteins share the THAP domain, an evolutionary conserved zinc-finger DNA-binding domain. Studies of different THAP proteins have indicated roles in gene transcription, cell proliferation and development. We have analyzed this protein family, focusing on THAP7 and THAP11. We show that human THAP proteins possess differing homo- and heterodimer formation properties and interaction abilities with the transcriptional co-regulator HCF-1. HEK-293 cells lacking THAP7 were viable but proliferated more slowly. In contrast, HEK-293 cells were very sensitive to THAP11 alteration. Nevertheless, HEK-293 cells bearing a THAP11 mutation identified in a patient suffering from cobalamin disorder (THAP11F80L) were viable although proliferated more slowly. Cobalamin disorder is an inborn vitamin deficiency characterized by neurodevelopmental abnormalities, most often owing to biallelic mutations in the MMACHC gene, whose gene product MMACHC is a key enzyme in the cobalamin (vitamin B12) metabolic pathway. We show that THAP11F80L selectively affected promoter binding by THAP11, having more deleterious effects on a subset of THAP11 targets, and resulting in altered patterns of gene expression. In particular, THAP11F80L exhibited a strong effect on association with the MMACHC promoter and led to a decrease in MMACHC gene transcription, suggesting that the THAP11F80L mutation is directly responsible for the observed cobalamin disorder.

PMID: 31905202
0

Cell Microbiol.: co-auth.: GTF

 2020 Jan 8:e13156. doi: 10.1111/cmi.13156. [Epub ahead of print]

Blind killing of both male and female Drosophila embryos by a natural variant of the endosymbiotic bacterium Spiroplasma poulsonii.

Abstract

Spiroplasma poulsonii is a vertically transmitted endosymbiont of Drosophila melanogaster that causes male-killing, that is the death of infected male embryos during embryogenesis. Here we report a natural variant of S. poulsonii that is efficiently vertically transmitted yet does not selectively kill males, but kills rather a subset of all embryos regardless of their sex, a phenotype we call “blind-killing”. We show that the natural plasmid of S. poulsonii has an altered structure: Spaid, the gene coding for the male-killing toxin, is deleted in the blind-killing strain, confirming its function as a male-killing factor. We then further investigate several hypotheses that could explain the sex-independent toxicity of this new strain on host embryos. As the second non-male-killing variant isolated from a male-killing original population, this new strain raises questions on how male-killing is maintained or lost in fly populations. As a natural knock-out of Spaid, which is unachievable yet by genetic engineering approaches, this variant also represents a valuable tool for further investigations on the male-killing mechanism. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS:

Spiroplasma; endosymbiosis; male killing; spaid

PMID: 31912942

 

0

Circ Heart Fail.: co-auth.: W.Wahli

 2019 Dec;12(12):e005962. doi: 10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.119.005962. Epub 2019 Dec 13.

Collaborative Regulation of LRG1 by TGF-β1 and PPAR-β/δ Modulates Chronic Pressure Overload-Induced Cardiac Fibrosis.

Liu C1Lim ST1Teo MHY1Tan MSY1Kulkarni MD1Qiu B2Li A3Lal S3Dos Remedios CG3Tan NS1,4,2,5Wahli W1,6,7Ferenczi MA1Song W1,8Hong W2Wang X1,2,9,10.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Despite its established significance in fibrotic cardiac remodeling, clinical benefits of global inhibition of TGF (transforming growth factor)-β1 signaling remain controversial. LRG1 (leucine-rich-α2 glycoprotein 1) is known to regulate endothelial TGFβ signaling. This study evaluated the role of LRG1 in cardiac fibrosis and its transcriptional regulatory network in cardiac fibroblasts.

METHODS:

Pressure overload-induced heart failure was established by transverse aortic constriction. Western blot, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, immunofluorescence, and immunohistochemistry were used to evaluate the expression level and pattern of interested targets or pathology during fibrotic cardiac remodeling. Cardiac function was assessed by pressure-volume loop analysis.

RESULTS:

LRG1 expression was significantly suppressed in left ventricle of mice with transverse aortic constriction-induced fibrotic cardiac remodeling (mean difference, -0.00085 [95% CI, -0.0013 to -0.00043]; P=0.005) and of patients with end-stage ischemic-dilated cardiomyopathy (mean difference, 0.13 [95% CI, 0.012-0.25]; P=0.032). More profound cardiac fibrosis (mean difference, -0.014% [95% CI, -0.029% to -0.00012%]; P=0.048 for interstitial fibrosis; mean difference, -1.3 [95% CI, -2.5 to -0.2]; P=0.016 for perivascular fibrosis), worse cardiac dysfunction (mean difference, -2.5 ms [95% CI, -4.5 to -0.4 ms]; P=0.016 for Tau-g; mean difference, 13% [95% CI, 2%-24%]; P=0.016 for ejection fraction), and hyperactive TGFβ signaling in transverse aortic constriction-operated Lrg1-deficient mice (mean difference, -0.27 [95% CI, -0.47 to -0.07]; P<0.001), which could be reversed by cardiac-specific Lrg1 delivery mediated by adeno-associated virus 9. Mechanistically, LRG1 inhibits cardiac fibroblast activation by competing with TGFβ1 for receptor binding, while PPAR (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor)-β/δ and TGFβ1 collaboratively regulate LRG1 expression via SMRT (silencing mediator for retinoid and thyroid hormone receptor). We further demonstrated functional interactions between LRG1 and PPARβ/δ in cardiac fibroblast activation.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our results established a highly complex molecular network involving LRG1, TGFβ1, PPARβ/δ, and SMRT in regulating cardiac fibroblast activation and cardiac fibrosis. Targeting LRG1 or PPARβ/δ represents a promising strategy to control pathological cardiac remodeling in response to chronic pressure overload.

KEYWORDS:

animals; humans; leucine; mice; stroke volume

PMID: 31830829