Recent CIG publications Archive

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Mol Metab.: co-auth.: B.Thorens and I.Xenarios

 2019 Mar 18. pii: S2212-8778(19)30130-9. doi: 10.1016/j.molmet.2019.03.004. [Epub ahead of print]

Laser capture microdissection of human pancreatic islets reveals novel eQTLs associated with type 2 diabetes.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Genome wide association studies (GWAS) for type 2 diabetes (T2D) have identified genetic loci that often localise in non-coding regions of the genome, suggesting gene regulation effects. We combined genetic and transcriptomic analysis from human islets obtained from brain-dead organ donors or surgical patients to detect expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) and shed light into the regulatory mechanisms of these genes.

METHODS:

Pancreatic islets were isolated either by laser capture microdissection (LCM) from surgical specimens of 103 metabolically phenotyped pancreatectomized patients (PPP) or by collagenase digestion of pancreas from 100 brain-dead organ donors (OD). Genotyping (> 8.7 million single nucleotide polymorphisms) and expression (> 47,000 transcripts and splice variants) analyses were combined to generate cis-eQTLs.

RESULTS:

After applying genome-wide false discovery rate significance thresholds, we identified 1,173 and 1,021 eQTLs in samples of OD and PPP, respectively. Among the strongest eQTLs shared between OD and PPP were CHURC1 (OD p-value=1.71 × 10-24; PPP p-value = 3.64 × 10-24) and PSPH (OD p-value = 3.92 × 10-26; PPP p-value = 3.64 × 10-24). We identified eQTLs in linkage-disequilibrium with GWAS loci T2D and associated traits, including TTLL6, MLX and KIF9 loci, which do not implicate the nearest gene. We found in the PPP datasets 11 eQTL genes, which were differentially expressed in T2D and two genes (CYP4V2 and TSEN2) associated with HbA1c but none in the OD samples.

CONCLUSIONS:

eQTL analysis of LCM islets from PPP led us to identify novel genes which had not been previously linked to islet biology and T2D. The understanding gained from eQTL approaches, especially using surgical samples of living patients, provides a more accurate 3-dimensional representation than those from genetic studies alone.

KEYWORDS:

Genetics; Islets; Laser capture microdissection; Type 2 diabetes; eQTLs

PMID: 30956117

 

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PLoS One.: co-auth.: group Fajas

 2019 Apr 8;14(4):e0215083. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0215083. eCollection 2019.

Human adipose tissue H3K4me3 histone mark in adipogenic, lipid metabolism and inflammatory genes is positively associated with BMI and HOMA-IR.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

Adipose tissue is considered an important metabolic tissue, in charge of energy storage as well as being able to act in systemic homeostasis and inflammation. Epigenetics involves a series of factors that are important for gene regulation or for chromatin structure, mostly DNA methylation and histone-tail modifications, which can be modified by environmental conditions (nutrition, lifestyle, smoking…). Since metabolic diseases like obesity and diabetes are closely related to lifestyle and nutrition, epigenetic deregulation could play an important role in the onset of these diseases and vice versa. However, little is known about histone marks in human adipose tissue. In a previous work, we developed a protocol for chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) of frozen human adipose tissue. By using this method, this study investigates, for the first time, the H3K4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) mark (open chromatin) on the promoter of several factors involved in adipogenesis, lipid metabolism and inflammation in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) from human subjects with different degrees of body mass index (BMI) and metabolic disease.

METHODOLOGY:

VAT was collected and frozen at -80°C. 100 mg VAT samples were fixed in 0.5% formaldehyde and homogenized. After sonication, the sheared chromatin was immune-precipitated with an anti-H3K4me3 antibody linked to magnetic beads and purified. H3K4me3 enrichment was analyzed by qPCR for LEP, LPL, SREBF2, SCD1, PPARG, IL6, TNF and E2F1 promoters. mRNA extraction on the same samples was performed to quantify gene expression of these genes.

RESULTS:

H3K4me3 was enriched at the promoter of E2F1, LPL, SREBF2, SCD1, PPARG and IL6 in lean normoglycemic compared to morbid obese subjects with prediabetes. Accordingly H3K4me3 mark enrichment at E2F1, LPL, SREBF2, SCD1, PPARG and IL6 promoters was positively correlated with the BMI and the HOMA-IR. Regression analysis showed a strong relationship between the BMI with H3K4me3 at the promoter of E2F1 and LPL, and with mRNA levels of LEP and SCD. In the case of HOMA-IR, the regression analysis showed associations with H3K4me3 enrichment at the promoter of SCD1 and IL6, and with the mRNA of LEP and SCD1. Moreover H3K4me3 at the E2F1 promoter was positively associated to E2F1 mRNA levels.

CONCLUSIONS:

H3K4me3 enrichment in the promoter of LEP, LPL, SREBF2, SCD1, PPARG, IL6, TNF and E2F1 is directly associated with increasing BMI and metabolic deterioration. The H3k4me3 mark could be regulating E3F1 mRNA levels in adipose tissue, while no associations between the promoter enrichment of this mark and mRNA levels existed for the other genes studied.

PMID: 30958852
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Polymers (Basel).: auth.: group Stasiak

 2018 Oct 11;10(10). pii: E1126. doi: 10.3390/polym10101126.

Chromatin Loop Extrusion and Chromatin Unknotting.

Abstract

It has been a puzzle how decondensed interphase chromosomes remain essentially unknotted. The natural expectation is that in the presence of type II DNA topoisomerases that permit passages of double-stranded DNA regions through each other, all chromosomes should reach the state of topological equilibrium. The topological equilibrium in highly crowded interphase chromosomes forming chromosome territories would result in formation of highly knotted chromatin fibres. However, Chromosome Conformation Capture (3C) methods revealed that the decay of contact probabilities with the genomic distance in interphase chromosomes is practically the same as in the crumpled globule state that is formed when long polymers condense without formation of any knots. To remove knots from highly crowded chromatin, one would need an active process that should not only provide the energy to move the system from the state of topological equilibrium but also guide topoisomerase-mediated passages in such a way that knots would be efficiently unknotted instead of making the knots even more complex. We perform coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations of the process of chromatin loop extrusion involving knotted and catenated chromatin fibres to check whether chromatin loop extrusion may be involved in active unknotting of chromatin fibres. Our simulations show that the process of chromatin loop extrusion is ideally suited to actively unknot, decatenate and demix chromatin fibres in interphase chromosomes.

KEYWORDS:

DNA knots; DNA topoisomerases; biopolymers; chromatin; chromatin loop extrusion; chromosomes; cohesin

PMID: 30961051
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Mol Cancer.: co-aut.: W.Wahli

 2019 Mar 30;18(1):51. doi: 10.1186/s12943-019-0971-9.

Exploiting vulnerabilities of cancer by targeting nuclear receptors of stromal cells in tumor microenvironment.

Cheng HS1Lee JXT2Wahli W2,3,4Tan NS5,6.

Abstract

The tumor microenvironment is a complex and dynamic cellular community comprising the tumor epithelium and various tumor-supporting cells such as immune cells, fibroblasts, immunosuppressive cells, adipose cells, endothelial cells, and pericytes. The interplay between the tumor microenvironment and tumor cells represents a key contributor to immune evasiveness, physiological hardiness and the local and systemic invasiveness of malignant cells. Nuclear receptors are master regulators of physiological processes and are known to play pro-/anti-oncogenic activities in tumor cells. However, the actions of nuclear receptors in tumor-supporting cells have not been widely studied. Given the excellent druggability and extensive regulatory effects of nuclear receptors, understanding their biological functionality in the tumor microenvironment is of utmost importance. Therefore, the present review aims to summarize recent evidence about the roles of nuclear receptors in tumor-supporting cells and their implications for malignant processes such as tumor proliferation, evasion of immune surveillance, angiogenesis, chemotherapeutic resistance, and metastasis. Based on findings derived mostly from cell culture studies and a few in vivo animal cancer models, the functions of VDR, PPARs, AR, ER and GR in tumor-supporting cells are relatively well-characterized. Evidence for other receptors, such as RARβ, RORγ, and FXR, is limited yet promising. Hence, the nuclear receptor signature in the tumor microenvironment may harbor prognostic value. The clinical prospects of a tumor microenvironment-oriented cancer therapy exploiting the nuclear receptors in different tumor-supporting cells are also encouraging. The major challenge, however, lies in the ability to develop a highly specific drug delivery system to facilitate precision medicine in cancer therapy.

KEYWORDS:

Cancer-associated fibroblast; Myeloid-derived suppressor cells; Nuclear receptors; Tumor microenvironment; Tumor-associated macrophage

PMID: 30925918

 

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Database (Oxford).: co-auth.: I.Xenarios

 2019 Jan 1;2019. pii: baz040. doi: 10.1093/database/baz040.

An enhanced workflow for variant interpretation in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot improves consistency and reuse in ClinVar.

Abstract

Personalized genomic medicine depends on integrated analyses that combine genetic and phenotypic data from individual patients with reference knowledge of the functional and clinical significance of sequence variants. Sources of this reference knowledge include the ClinVar repository of human genetic variants, a community resource that accepts submissions from external groups, and UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, an expert-curated resource of protein sequences and functional annotation. UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot provides knowledge on the functional impact and clinical significance of over 30 000 human protein-coding sequence variants, curated from peer-reviewed literature reports. Here we present a pilot study that lays the groundwork for the integration of curated knowledge of protein sequence variation from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot with ClinVar. We show that existing interpretations of variant pathogenicity in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and ClinVar are highly concordant, with 88% of variants that are common to the two resources having interpretations of clinical significance that agree. Re-curation of a subset of UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot variants according to American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) guidelines using ClinGen tools further increases this level of agreement, mainly due to the reclassification of supposedly pathogenic variants as benign, based on newly available population frequency data. We have now incorporated ACMG guidelines and ClinGen tools into the UniProt Knowledgebase (UniProtKB) curation workflow and routinely submit variant data from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot to ClinVar. These efforts will increase the usability and utilization of UniProtKB variant data and will facilitate the continuing (re-)evaluation of clinical variant interpretations as data sets and knowledge evolve.

PMID: 30937429

 

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Elife.: auth.: group Franken

 2019 Feb 5;8. pii: e43400. doi: 10.7554/eLife.43400.

Cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRBP) adjusts clock-gene expression and REM-sleep recovery following sleep deprivation.

Abstract

Sleep depriving mice affects clock-gene expression, suggesting that these genes contribute to sleep homeostasis. The mechanisms linking extended wakefulness to clock-gene expression are, however, not well understood. We propose CIRBP to play a role because its rhythmic expression is i) sleep-wake driven and ii) necessary for high-amplitude clock-gene expression in vitro. We therefore expect Cirbp knock-out (KO) mice to exhibit attenuated sleep-deprivation-induced changes in clock-gene expression, and consequently to differ in their sleep homeostatic regulation. Lack of CIRBP indeed blunted the sleep-deprivation incurred changes in cortical expression of Nr1d1, whereas it amplified the changes in Per2 and Clock. Concerning sleep homeostasis, KO mice accrued only half the extra REM sleep wild-type (WT) littermates obtained during recovery. Unexpectedly, KO mice were more active during lights-off which was accompanied with faster theta oscillations compared to WT mice. Thus, CIRBP adjusts cortical clock-gene expression after sleep deprivation and expedites REM-sleep recovery.

KEYWORDS:

REM sleep; circadian rhythm; clock genes; cortical temperature; locomotor activity; mouse; neuroscience; sleep

PMID: 30720431