Recent CIG publications Archive

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Physiol Plant.: auth.: group Fankhauser

 2020 Mar 24. doi: 10.1111/ppl.13098. [Epub ahead of print]

Stem phototropism towards blue and ultraviolet light.

Abstract

Positive phototropism is the process through which plants orient their organs towards a directional light source. While the blue light receptors phototropins (phot) play a major role in phototropism towards blue (B) and ultraviolet (UV) radiation, recent research showed that the UVB light receptor UVR8 also triggers phototropism towards UVB. In addition, new details of the molecular mechanisms underlying the activity of these receptors and interaction with other environmental signals have emerged in the past years. In this review we summarize the current knowledge about hypocotyledoneous and inflorescence stem growth reorientation towards B and UVB, with focus on the molecular mechanisms. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

PMID: 32208516

 

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Nat Plants.: co-auth.: group Fankhauser

 2020 Mar;6(3):223-230. doi: 10.1038/s41477-020-0604-8. Epub 2020 Mar 9.

A light-dependent molecular link between competition cues and defence responses in plants.

Abstract

Growth responses to competition1 and defence responses to the attack of consumer organisms2 are two classic examples of adaptive phenotypic plasticity in plants. However, the mechanistic and functional links between these responses are not well understood. Jasmonates, a family of lipid-derived signals, are potent growth inhibitors and central regulators of plant immunity to herbivores and pathogens3,4, with both roles being evolutionarily conserved from bryophytes5 to angiosperms6. When shade-intolerant plants perceive the proximity of competitors using the photoreceptor phytochrome B, they activate the shade-avoidance syndrome and downregulate jasmonate responses7. Despite the central implications of this light-mediated change in the growth/defence balance for plant adaptation and crop yield8,9, the mechanisms by which photoreceptors relay light cues to the jasmonate signalling pathway remain poorly understood10. Here, we identify a sulfotransferase (ST2a) that is strongly upregulated by plant proximity perceived by phytochrome B via the phytochrome B-phytochrome interacting factor signalling module. By catalysing the formation of a sulfated jasmonate derivative, ST2a acts to reduce the pool of precursors of active forms of jasmonates and represents a direct molecular link between photoreceptors and hormone signalling in plants. The metabolic step defined by this enzyme provides a molecular mechanism for prioritizing shade avoidance over defence under intense plant competition.

PMID: 32170284
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Sci Adv.: auth.: group Benton

 2020 Mar 11;6(11):eaaz7238. doi: 10.1126/sciadv.aaz7238. eCollection 2020 Mar.

Functional integration of “undead” neurons in the olfactory system.

Abstract

Programmed cell death (PCD) is widespread during neurodevelopment, eliminating the surpluses of neuronal production. Using the Drosophila olfactory system, we examined the potential of cells fated to die to contribute to circuit evolution. Inhibition of PCD is sufficient to generate new cells that express neural markers and exhibit odor-evoked activity. These “undead” neurons express a subset of olfactory receptors that is enriched for relatively recent receptor duplicates and includes some normally found in different chemosensory organs and life stages. Moreover, undead neuron axons integrate into the olfactory circuitry in the brain, forming novel receptor/glomerular couplings. Comparison of homologous olfactory lineages across drosophilids reveals natural examples of fate change from death to a functional neuron. Last, we provide evidence that PCD contributes to evolutionary differences in carbon dioxide-sensing circuit formation in Drosophila and mosquitoes. These results reveal the remarkable potential of alterations in PCD patterning to evolve new neural pathways.

PMID: 32195354

 

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Int J Mol Sci.: auth.: W.Wahli

 2020 Mar 4;21(5). pii: E1747. doi: 10.3390/ijms21051747.

PPARβ/δ Agonism Upregulates Forkhead Box A2 to Reduce Inflammation in C2C12 Myoblasts and in Skeletal Muscle.

Phua WWT1,2Tan WR3Yip YS1Hew ID1Wee JWK1Cheng HS1Leow MKS3,4Wahli W3,5,6Tan NS1,3.

Abstract

Daily activities expose muscles to innumerable impacts, causing accumulated tissue damage and inflammation that impairs muscle recovery and function, yet the mechanism modulating the inflammatory response in muscles remains unclear. Our study suggests that Forkhead box A2 (FoxA2), a pioneer transcription factor, has a predominant role in the inflammatory response during skeletal muscle injury. FoxA2 expression in skeletal muscle is upregulated by fatty acids and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) but is refractory to insulin and glucocorticoids. Using PPARβ/δ agonist GW501516 upregulates FoxA2, which in turn, attenuates the production of proinflammatory cytokines and reduces the infiltration of CD45+ immune cells in two mouse models of muscle inflammation, systemic LPS and intramuscular injection of carrageenan, which mimic localized exercise-induced inflammation. This reduced local inflammatory response limits tissue damage and restores muscle tetanic contraction. In line with these results, a deficiency in either PPARβ/δ or FoxA2 diminishes the action of the PPARβ/δ agonist GW501516 to suppress an aggravated inflammatory response. Our study suggests that FoxA2 in skeletal muscle helps maintain homeostasis, acting as a gatekeeper to maintain key inflammation parameters at the desired level upon injury. Therefore, it is conceivable that certain myositis disorders or other forms of painful musculoskeletal diseases may benefit from approaches that increase FoxA2 activity in skeletal muscle.

KEYWORDS:

Forkhead box A2; muscle inflammation; peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors β/δ; tetanic contraction

PMID: 32143325

 

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Cell Mol Life Sci.: auth.: group Desvergne

 2020 Mar 11. doi: 10.1007/s00018-020-03485-z. [Epub ahead of print]

Anti-adipogenic signals at the onset of obesity-related inflammation in white adipose tissue.

Abstract

Chronic inflammation that affects primarily metabolic organs, such as white adipose tissue (WAT), is considered as a major cause of human obesity-associated co-morbidities. However, the molecular mechanisms initiating this inflammation in WAT are poorly understood. By combining transcriptomics, ChIP-seq and modeling approaches, we studied the global early and late responses to a high-fat diet (HFD) in visceral (vWAT) and subcutaneous (scWAT) AT, the first being more prone to obesity-induced inflammation. HFD rapidly triggers proliferation of adipocyte precursors within vWAT. However, concomitant antiadipogenic signals limit vWAT hyperplastic expansion by interfering with the differentiation of proliferating adipocyte precursors. Conversely, in scWAT, residing beige adipocytes lose their oxidizing properties and allow storage of excessive fatty acids. This phase is followed by tissue hyperplastic growth and increased angiogenic signals, which further enable scWAT expansion without generating inflammation. Our data indicate that scWAT and vWAT differential ability to modulate adipocyte number and differentiation in response to obesogenic stimuli has a crucial impact on the different susceptibility to obesity-related inflammation of these adipose tissue depots.

KEYWORDS:

Adipocyte precursors; Adipogenesis; Adipose tissue; Angiogenesis; Epigenetics; Genome-scale metabolic network; Metaflammation; System biology; Transcriptomics

PMID:
32157317

 

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Nucleic Acids Res.: co-auth.: J-Y. Roignant

 2020 Feb 28;48(4):2050-2072. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkaa002.

tRNA 2′-O-methylation by a duo of TRM7/FTSJ1 proteins modulates small RNA silencing in Drosophila.

Abstract

2′-O-Methylation (Nm) represents one of the most common RNA modifications. Nm affects RNA structure and function with crucial roles in various RNA-mediated processes ranging from RNA silencing, translation, self versus non-self recognition to viral defense mechanisms. Here, we identify two Nm methyltransferases (Nm-MTases) in Drosophila melanogaster (CG7009 and CG5220) as functional orthologs of yeast TRM7 and human FTSJ1. Genetic knockout studies together with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and RiboMethSeq mapping revealed that CG7009 is responsible for methylating the wobble position in tRNAPhe, tRNATrp and tRNALeu, while CG5220 methylates position C32 in the same tRNAs and also targets additional tRNAs. CG7009 or CG5220 mutant animals were viable and fertile but exhibited various phenotypes such as lifespan reduction, small RNA pathways dysfunction and increased sensitivity to RNA virus infections. Our results provide the first detailed characterization of two TRM7 family members in Drosophila and uncover a molecular link between enzymes catalyzing Nm at specific tRNAs and small RNA-induced gene silencing pathways.

PMID: 31943105