Recent CIG publications Archive

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PLoS Comput Biol.: auth.: C.Dessimoz

 2018 May 31;14(5):e1006137. doi: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1006137. eCollection 2018 May.

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Mietchen D1Wodak S2Wasik S3,4,5Szostak N3,4,5Dessimoz C6,7,8.
PMID: 29851950

 

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Mol Cell Endocrinol.: co-auth.: MEF

 2018 May 3. pii: S0303-7207(18)30134-5. doi: 10.1016/j.mce.2018.04.015.

Involvement of glucocorticoid prereceptor metabolism and signaling in rat visceral adipose tissue lipid metabolism after chronic stress combined with high-fructose diet.

Abstract

Both fructose overconsumption and increased glucocorticoids secondary to chronic stress may contribute to overall dyslipidemia. In this study we specifically assessed the effects and interactions of dietary fructose and chronic stress on lipid metabolism in the visceral adipose tissue(VAT) of male Wistar rats. We analyzed the effects of 9-week 20% high fructose diet and 4-week chronic unpredictable stress, separately and in combination, on VAT histology, glucocorticoid prereceptor metabolismglucocorticoid receptor subcellular redistribution and expression of major metabolic genes. Blood triglycerides and fatty acid composition were also measured to assess hepatic Δ9 desaturase activity. The results showed that fructose diet increased blood triglycerides and Δ9 desaturase activity. On the other hand, stress led to corticosterone elevation, glucocorticoid receptor activation and decrease in adipocyte size, while phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, adipose tissuetriglyceride lipase, FAT/CD36 and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) were increased, pointing to VAT lipolysis and glyceroneogenesis. The combination of stress and fructose diet was associated with marked stimulation of fatty acid synthase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase mRNA level and with increased 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 and hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase protein levels, suggesting a coordinated increase in hexose monophosphate shunt and de novo lipogenesis. It however did not influence the level of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma, SREBP-1c and carbohydrate responsive element-binding protein. In conclusion, our results showed that only combination of dietary fructose and stress increase glucocorticoid prereceptor metabolism and stimulates lipogenic enzyme expression suggesting that interaction between stress and fructose may be instrumental in promoting VAT expansion and dysfunction.

KEYWORDS:

Chronic unpredictable stress; Fructose; Glucocorticoids; Lipid metabolismVisceral adipose tissue

PMID: 29729371
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Sci Rep.: auth.: I. Xenarios

Sci Rep. 2016 May 31;6:26822. doi: 10.1038/srep26822.

Analysis of the dynamic co-expression network of heart regeneration in the zebrafish.

Abstract

The zebrafish has the capacity to regenerate its heart after severe injury. While the function of a few genes during this process has been studied, we are far from fully understanding how genes interact to coordinate heart regeneration. To enable systematic insights into this phenomenon, we generated and integrated a dynamic co-expression network of heart regeneration in the zebrafish and linked systems-level properties to the underlying molecular events. Across multiple post-injury time points, the network displays topological attributes of biological relevance. We show that regeneration steps are mediated by modules of transcriptionally coordinated genes, and by genes acting as network hubs. We also established direct associations between hubs and validated drivers of heart regeneration with murine and human orthologs. The resulting models and interactive analysis tools are available at http://infused.vital-it.ch. Using a worked example, we demonstrate the usefulness of this unique open resource for hypothesis generation and in silico screening for genes involved in heart regeneration.

PMID: 27241320

 

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Eur J Nutr.: co-auth.: MEF

 2018 May 29. doi: 10.1007/s00394-018-1730-1. [Epub ahead of print]

Modulation of hepatic inflammation and energy-sensing pathways in the rat liver by high-fructose diet and chronic stress.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

High-fructose consumption and chronic stress are both associated with metabolic inflammation and insulin resistance. Recently, disturbed activity of energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) was recognized as mediator between nutrient-induced stress and inflammation. Thus, we analyzed the effects of high-fructose diet, alone or in combination with chronic stress, on glucose homeostasis, inflammation and expression of energy sensing proteins in the rat liver.

METHODS:

In male Wistar rats exposed to 9-week 20% fructose diet and/or 4-week chronic unpredictable stress we measured plasma and hepatic corticosterone level, indicators of glucose homeostasis and lipid metabolism, hepatic inflammation (pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine levels, Toll-like receptor 4, NLRP3, activation of NFκB, JNK and ERK pathways) and levels of energy-sensing proteins AMPK, SIRT1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α).

RESULTS:

High-fructose diet led to glucose intolerance, activation of NFκB and JNK pathways and increased intrahepatic IL-1β, TNFα and inhibitory phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 on Ser307. It also decreased phospho-AMPK/AMPK ratio and increased SIRT1 expression. Stress alone increased plasma and hepatic corticosterone but did not influence glucose tolerance, nor hepatic inflammatory or energy-sensing proteins. After the combined treatment, hepatic corticosterone was increased, glucose tolerance remained preserved, while hepatic inflammation was partially prevented despite decreased AMPK activity.

CONCLUSION:

High-fructose diet resulted in glucose intolerance, hepatic inflammation, decreased AMPK activity and reduced insulin sensitivity. Chronic stress alone did not exert such effects, but when applied together with high-fructose diet it could partially prevent fructose-induced inflammation, presumably due to increased hepatic glucocorticoids.

KEYWORDS:

AMP-activated protein kinase; Dietary fructose; Inflammation; Rat liver; Stress

PMID: 29845385

 

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Handb Exp Pharmacol.: co-auth.: P. Franken

 2018 May 10. doi: 10.1007/164_2018_125. [Epub ahead of print]

Omics Approaches in Sleep-Wake Regulation.

Abstract

Although sleep seems an obvious and simple behaviour, it is extremely complex involving numerous interactions both at the neuronal and the molecular levels. While we have gained detailed insight into the molecules and neuronal networks responsible for the circadian organization of sleep and wakefulness, the molecular underpinnings of the homeostatic aspect of sleep regulation are still unknown and the focus of a considerable research effort. In the last 20 years, the development of techniques allowing the simultaneous measurement of hundreds to thousands of molecular targets (i.e. ‘omics’ approaches) has enabled the unbiased study of the molecular pathways regulated by and regulating sleep. In this chapter, we will review how the different omics approaches, including transcriptomics, epigenomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, have advanced sleep research. We present relevant data in the framework of the two-process model in which circadian and homeostatic processes interact to regulate sleep. The integration of the different omics levels, known as ‘systems genetics’, will eventually lead to a better understanding of how information flows from the genome, to molecules, to networks, and finally to sleep both in health and disease.

KEYWORDS:

Circadian timing system; Epigenomics; Metabolomics; Proteomics; Sleep homeostasis; Transcriptomics

PMID: 29796779

 

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Dev Cell.: auth.: group Gatfield

 2018 Jan 8;44(1):7-9. doi: 10.1016/j.devcel.2017.12.018. Epub 2018 Jan 8.

Circadian Clocks and UPR: New Twists as the Story Unfolds.

Abstract

Circadian clocks help control the unfolded protein response (UPR). In a recent issue of Nature Cell Biology, Bu et al. (2017) show that the interaction is reciprocal, with miRNA-211 providing a signal from the UPR to the clock component BMAL1, affecting circadian timing, global translational control, and cancer cell survival.

PMID: 29316442