Recent publications
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Int J Mol Sci.: auth.: W.Wahli

 2020 Mar 4;21(5). pii: E1747. doi: 10.3390/ijms21051747.

PPARβ/δ Agonism Upregulates Forkhead Box A2 to Reduce Inflammation in C2C12 Myoblasts and in Skeletal Muscle.

Phua WWT1,2Tan WR3Yip YS1Hew ID1Wee JWK1Cheng HS1Leow MKS3,4Wahli W3,5,6Tan NS1,3.

Abstract

Daily activities expose muscles to innumerable impacts, causing accumulated tissue damage and inflammation that impairs muscle recovery and function, yet the mechanism modulating the inflammatory response in muscles remains unclear. Our study suggests that Forkhead box A2 (FoxA2), a pioneer transcription factor, has a predominant role in the inflammatory response during skeletal muscle injury. FoxA2 expression in skeletal muscle is upregulated by fatty acids and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) but is refractory to insulin and glucocorticoids. Using PPARβ/δ agonist GW501516 upregulates FoxA2, which in turn, attenuates the production of proinflammatory cytokines and reduces the infiltration of CD45+ immune cells in two mouse models of muscle inflammation, systemic LPS and intramuscular injection of carrageenan, which mimic localized exercise-induced inflammation. This reduced local inflammatory response limits tissue damage and restores muscle tetanic contraction. In line with these results, a deficiency in either PPARβ/δ or FoxA2 diminishes the action of the PPARβ/δ agonist GW501516 to suppress an aggravated inflammatory response. Our study suggests that FoxA2 in skeletal muscle helps maintain homeostasis, acting as a gatekeeper to maintain key inflammation parameters at the desired level upon injury. Therefore, it is conceivable that certain myositis disorders or other forms of painful musculoskeletal diseases may benefit from approaches that increase FoxA2 activity in skeletal muscle.

KEYWORDS:

Forkhead box A2; muscle inflammation; peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors β/δ; tetanic contraction

PMID: 32143325

 

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Cell Mol Life Sci.: auth.: group Desvergne

 2020 Mar 11. doi: 10.1007/s00018-020-03485-z. [Epub ahead of print]

Anti-adipogenic signals at the onset of obesity-related inflammation in white adipose tissue.

Abstract

Chronic inflammation that affects primarily metabolic organs, such as white adipose tissue (WAT), is considered as a major cause of human obesity-associated co-morbidities. However, the molecular mechanisms initiating this inflammation in WAT are poorly understood. By combining transcriptomics, ChIP-seq and modeling approaches, we studied the global early and late responses to a high-fat diet (HFD) in visceral (vWAT) and subcutaneous (scWAT) AT, the first being more prone to obesity-induced inflammation. HFD rapidly triggers proliferation of adipocyte precursors within vWAT. However, concomitant antiadipogenic signals limit vWAT hyperplastic expansion by interfering with the differentiation of proliferating adipocyte precursors. Conversely, in scWAT, residing beige adipocytes lose their oxidizing properties and allow storage of excessive fatty acids. This phase is followed by tissue hyperplastic growth and increased angiogenic signals, which further enable scWAT expansion without generating inflammation. Our data indicate that scWAT and vWAT differential ability to modulate adipocyte number and differentiation in response to obesogenic stimuli has a crucial impact on the different susceptibility to obesity-related inflammation of these adipose tissue depots.

KEYWORDS:

Adipocyte precursors; Adipogenesis; Adipose tissue; Angiogenesis; Epigenetics; Genome-scale metabolic network; Metaflammation; System biology; Transcriptomics

PMID:
32157317

 

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Nucleic Acids Res.: co-auth.: J-Y. Roignant

 2020 Feb 28;48(4):2050-2072. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkaa002.

tRNA 2′-O-methylation by a duo of TRM7/FTSJ1 proteins modulates small RNA silencing in Drosophila.

Abstract

2′-O-Methylation (Nm) represents one of the most common RNA modifications. Nm affects RNA structure and function with crucial roles in various RNA-mediated processes ranging from RNA silencing, translation, self versus non-self recognition to viral defense mechanisms. Here, we identify two Nm methyltransferases (Nm-MTases) in Drosophila melanogaster (CG7009 and CG5220) as functional orthologs of yeast TRM7 and human FTSJ1. Genetic knockout studies together with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and RiboMethSeq mapping revealed that CG7009 is responsible for methylating the wobble position in tRNAPhe, tRNATrp and tRNALeu, while CG5220 methylates position C32 in the same tRNAs and also targets additional tRNAs. CG7009 or CG5220 mutant animals were viable and fertile but exhibited various phenotypes such as lifespan reduction, small RNA pathways dysfunction and increased sensitivity to RNA virus infections. Our results provide the first detailed characterization of two TRM7 family members in Drosophila and uncover a molecular link between enzymes catalyzing Nm at specific tRNAs and small RNA-induced gene silencing pathways.

PMID: 31943105

 

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Front Physiol.: co-auth.: F.Schütz

 2020 Feb 25;11:160. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2020.00160. eCollection 2020.

Prevalence Estimate of Blood Doping in Elite Track and Field Athletes During Two Major International Events.

Abstract

In elite sport, the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) was invented to tackle cheaters by monitoring closely changes in biological parameters, flagging atypical variations. The hematological module of the ABP was indeed adopted in 2011 by World Athletics (WA). This study estimates the prevalence of blood doping based on hematological parameters in a large cohort of track and field athletes measured at two international major events (2011 and 2013 WA World Championships) with a hypothesized decrease in prevalence due to the ABP introduction. A total of 3683 blood samples were collected and analyzed from all participating athletes originating from 209 countries. The estimate of doping prevalence was obtained by using a Bayesian network with seven variables, as well as “blood doping” as a variable mimicking doping with low-doses of recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO), to generate reference cumulative distribution functions (CDFs) for the Abnormal Blood Profile Score (ABPS) from the ABP. Our results from robust hematological parameters indicate an estimation of an overall blood doping prevalence of 18% in 2011 and 15% in 2013 (non-significant difference) in average in endurance athletes [95% Confidence Interval (CI) 14-22 and 12-19% for 2011 and 2013, respectively]. A higher prevalence was observed in female athletes (22%, CI 16-28%) than in male athletes (15%, CI 9-20%) in 2011. In conclusion, this study presents the first comparison of blood doping prevalence in elite athletes based on biological measurements from major international events that may help scientists and experts to use the ABP in a more efficient and deterrent way.

KEYWORDS:

athletes; blood; doping; hematological passport; prevalence

PMID: 32161553

 

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Ecol Evol.: co-auth.: group Dessimoz and I.Xenarios

 2020 Feb 19;10(5):2284-2298. doi: 10.1002/ece3.5991. eCollection 2020 Mar.

New genome assembly of the barn owl (Tyto alba alba).

Abstract

New genomic tools open doors to study ecology, evolution, and population genomics of wild animals. For the Barn owl species complex, a cosmopolitan nocturnal raptor, a very fragmented draft genome was assembled for the American species (Tyto furcata pratincola) (Jarvis et al. 2014). To improve the genome, we assembled de novo Illumina and Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) long reads sequences of its European counterpart (Tyto alba alba). This genome assembly of 1.219 Gbp comprises 21,509 scaffolds and results in a N50 of 4,615,526 bp. BUSCO (Universal Single-Copy Orthologs) analysis revealed an assembly completeness of 94.8% with only 1.8% of the genes missing out of 4,915 avian orthologs searched, a proportion similar to that found in the genomes of the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) or the collared flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis). By mapping the reads of the female American barn owl to the male European barn owl reads, we detected several structural variants and identified 70 Mbp of the Z chromosome. The barn owl scaffolds were further mapped to the chromosomes of the zebra finch. In addition, the completeness of the European barn owl genome is demonstrated with 94 of 128 proteins missing in the chicken genome retrieved in the European barn owl transcripts. This improved genome will help future barn owl population genomic investigations.

KEYWORDS:

Strigiformes; Tytonidae; assembly; barn owl; bird; genome

PMID: 32184981

 

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CIG outing day

Thanks to all the participants of the ski/snowshoeing day/visit of the Castle in Grandson. It was fun !!!