Elife. 2021 Mar 8;10:e62073. doi: 10.7554/eLife.62073.
Although brain temperature has neurobiological and clinical importance, it remains unclear which factors contribute to its daily dynamics and to what extent. Using a statistical approach, we previously demonstrated that hourly brain temperature values co-varied strongly with time spent awake (Hoekstra et al., 2019). Here we develop and make available a mathematical tool to simulate and predict cortical temperature in mice based on a 4-s sleep-wake sequence. Our model estimated cortical temperature with remarkable precision and accounted for 91% of the variance based on three factors: sleep-wake sequence, time-of-day (‘circadian’), and a novel ‘prior wake prevalence’ factor, contributing with 74%, 9%, and 43%, respectively (including shared variance). We applied these optimized parameters to an independent cohort of mice and predicted cortical temperature with similar accuracy. This model confirms the profound influence of sleep-wake state on brain temperature, and can be harnessed to differentiate between thermoregulatory and sleep-wake-driven effects in experiments affecting both.
Keywords: brain temperature; computational biology; mice; model; mouse; neuroscience; sleep-wake state; systems biology.